Low-caloric formula diets can improve hemodynamic parameters of patients with type 2 diabetes. We, therefore, hypothesized that persons with overweight or obesity can benefit from a high-protein, low-glycemic but moderate-caloric formula diet. This post-hoc analysis of the Almased Concept against Overweight and Obesity and Related Health Risk- (ACOORH) trial investigated the impact of a lifestyle intervention combined with a formula diet (INT, n = 308) compared to a control group with lifestyle intervention alone (CON, n = 155) on hemodynamic parameters (systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP, DBP), resting heart rate (HR), and pulse wave velocity (PWV)) in high-risk individuals with prehypertension or hypertension. INT replaced meals during the first 6 months (1 week: 3 meals/day; 2−4 weeks: 2 meals/day; 5−26 weeks: 1 meal/day). Study duration was 12 months. From the starting cohort, 304 (68.3%, INT: n = 216; CON: n = 101) participants had a complete dataset. Compared to CON, INT significantly reduced more SBP (−7.3 mmHg 95% CI [−9.2; −5.3] vs. −3.3 mmHg [−5.9; −0.8], p < 0.049) and DBP (−3.7 mmHg [−4.9; −2.5] vs. −1.4 mmHg [−3.1; 0.2], p < 0.028) after 12 months. Compared to CON, INT showed a pronounced reduction in resting HR and PWV after 6 months but both lost significance after 12 months. Changes in SBP, DBP, and PWV were significantly associated positively with changes in body weight and fat mass (all p < 0.05) and resting HR correlated positively with fasting insulin (p < 0.001) after 12 months. Combining a lifestyle intervention with a high-protein and low-glycemic formula diet improves hemodynamic parameters to a greater extent than lifestyle intervention alone in high-risk individuals with overweight and obesity.