Discovery vs. rule-directed Learning in SCUBA Diving Education

Publikation: Beitrag in Buch/Bericht/KonferenzbandKonferenzbeitrag - Abstract in KonferenzbandForschungBegutachtung


Introduction Time-efficiency is a crucial factor when teaching SCUBA diving underwater, where lim-ited access, air supply, and cold reduce the amount of practice time. However, safety skills must be learned with sufficient quality and still be mastered even after longer breaks, es-pecially when beginners who learn to dive in their home country apply their skills only later on vacation. Based on prior research, we hypothesized a rule-directed learning ap-proach (RL) to show good initial results but less stability over time (Lam et al., 2009) and discovery learning (DL) to support a greater stability over time with a higher robustness to stress and fatigue and an increased learning outcome (Kal et al., 2018). Thus, the safety-relevant deployment of a surface marker buoy (SMB) was taught to diving beginners. Methods 25 beginners with pool experience (age: 22.5 ± 2.7; 5 females) were randomly assigned to RL (N=13) or DL (N=12) and familiarized with the concept and necessity of deploying a SMB in recreational diving. Acquisition: RL + DL received the same criteria for the skill: stable positioning and trim, speed, and safety. Only RL watched an additional video with visual presentation and explicit instructions about how to perform the skill successfully. After 10 min of underwater familiarization (at 4 m depth), 6 acquisition-trials were con-ducted. Pre: Subsequently, 3 evaluation-trials were performed, video-recorded and inde-pendently rated by 3 licensed SCUBA-instructors on the basis of various sub-criteria to water-position/trim, speed, and safety. Post: 3 video-recorded and rated trials were per-formed after 45 (± 5) days without any further practice or information. Statistics: Inter-rater reliability was assessed (IRR) and Wilcoxon pairwise comparisons calculated. Results IRRs supported consistent ratings. Aspects for safety performance were rated higher for RL compared to DL both during Pre (P=0.002) and Post (P=0.002), but RL took signifi-cantly more time to complete the skill during Pre (P=0.003) and Post (P=0.004) and re-ported a significantly higher perceived performance quality during Post (P=0.031) com-pared to DL. Trim performance improved for RL and deteriorated for DL from Pre to Post. Discussion Performance quality in unique aspects of the new skill seem to benefit more from explicit instructions with a detriment for speed (new aspects here: handling of the SMB, the dan-ger of entanglement, the amount of air in and the orientation of the SMB on the surface). The suspected higher learning for DL and robust performance in the Post test could not be observed. The choice of methods must be made depending on the goal and overall conditions. Kal, E., Prosée, R., Winters, M., & van der Kamp, J. (2018). Does implicit motor learning lead to greater automatization of mo-tor skills compared to explicit motor learning? A systematic review. PloS One, 13(9), e0203591. Lam, W. K., Maxwell, J. P., & Masters, R. (2009). Analogy versus explicit learning of a modified basketball shooting task: Per-formance and kinematic outcomes. Journal of Sports Sciences, 27(2), 179–191.
TitelSport, Mehr & Meer – Sportwissenschaft in gesellschaftlicher Verantwortung : 25. dvs-Hochschultag Kiel / virtuell, 29.-31. März 2022 : Abstracts
Herausgeber*innenManfred Wegner, Jonas Jürgensen
Herausgeber (Verlag)Feldhaus, Edition Czwalina
ISBN (Print)978-3-88020-705-9
ISBN (elektronisch)978-3-88020-705-5
PublikationsstatusVeröffentlicht - 16.03.2022
VeranstaltungSportwissenschaftlicher Hochschultag der dvs : Sport, Mehr & Meer - Kiel/virtuell, Kiel, Deutschland
Dauer: 29.03.202231.03.2022
Konferenznummer: 25