Lifestyle interventions including meal replacement are suitable for prevention and treatment of obesity and type-2-diabetes. Since leptin is involved in weight regulation, we hypothesised that a meal replacement-based lifestyle intervention would reduce leptin levels more effectively than lifestyle intervention alone. In the international, multicentre, randomised-controlled ACOORH-trial (Almased-Concept-against-Overweight-and-Obesity-and-Related- Health-Risk), overweight or obese participants with metabolic syndrome criteria (n = 463) were randomised into two groups and received telemonitoring devices and nutritional advice. The intervention group additionally used a protein-rich, low-glycaemic meal replacement. Data were collected at baseline, after 1, 3, 6, and 12 months. All datasets providing leptin data (n = 427) were included in this predefined subanalysis. Serum leptin levels significantly correlated with sex, body mass index, weight, and fat mass at baseline (p < 0.0001). Stronger leptin reduction has been observed in the intervention compared to the control group with the lowest levels after 1 month of intervention (estimated treatment difference −3.4 µg/L [1.4; 5.4] for females; −2.2 µg/L [1.2; 3.3] for males; p < 0.001 each) and was predictive for stronger reduction of body weight and fat mass (p < 0.001 each) over 12 months. Strongest weight loss was observed after 6 months (−5.9 ± 5.1 kg in females of the intervention group vs. −2.9 ± 4.9 kg in the control group (p < 0.0001); −6.8 ± 5.3 kg vs. −4.1 ± 4.4 kg (p = 0.003) in males) and in those participants with combined leptin and insulin decrease. A meal replacement-based lifestyle intervention effectively reduces leptin which is predictive for long-term weight loss.