Isotope-dilution mass spectrometric quantification of the prodrug lisdexamfetamine in human urine in doping control analysis

Publikation: Beitrag in FachzeitschriftZeitschriftenaufsätzeForschung


RATIONALE: Therapeutic approaches concerning attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) commonly include the administration of drugs amplifying cerebral dopamine and norepinephrine signals. Among these, compounds belonging to the Prohibited List as established by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) are present such as amfetamine or methylphenidate, and abuse of these can result in sanctions for athletes. The recently approved therapeutic lisdexamfetamine represents a slow-release prodrug of amfetamine for ADHD treatment. In order to support doping control laboratories in differentiating the abuse of amfetamine from a therapeutic administration of lisdexamfetamine, the determination of the prodrug from urine is desirable. Since approximately 2% of lisdexamfetamine are eliminated intact into urine, a liquid chromatography/high-resolution/high accuracy mass spectrometric method was developed, allowing the target analyte and one of its metabolites (4-hydroxyamfetamine sulfate) to be accurately quantified.

METHODS: Urine samples were fortified with fourfold deuterated lisdexamfetamine and analyzed directly using ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) interfaced via electrospray ionization to a second-generation quadrupole-orbitrap mass spectrometer. The assay was characterized concerning specificity, limits of quantification (0.15-5 ng/mL), intraday and interday imprecision (4-22%), accuracy (90-120%), linearity, and ion suppression/enhancement effects. A patient's urine samples were analyzed to provide proof-of-principle data demonstrating that the intact prodrug lisdexamfetamine is detectable in urine up to 11 h post-administration at concentrations up to 80 ng/mL. Moreover, amfetamine and sulfoconjugated 4-hydroxyamfetamine were measured, yielding up to 1146 and 56 ng/mL, respectively.

CONCLUSIONS: Considering the observed comparably low urinary concentrations of lisdexamfetamine and 4-hydroxyamfetamine sulfate, the preferred minimally labor-intense sample preparation, and the necessity of fast and robust result generation, the employed instrumental setup proved fit-for-purpose in sports drug testing.

ZeitschriftRapid communications in mass spectrometry : RCM
Seiten (von - bis)781-786
PublikationsstatusVeröffentlicht - 15.04.2014


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