Temporal decision-making: The interplay of goalkeepers and penalty takers

Benjamin Noël, John van der Kamp, Stefanie Klatt

Publikation: Beitrag in Buch/Bericht/KonferenzbandKonferenzbeitrag - Abstract in KonferenzbandForschungBegutachtung


Penalty kicking has been interpreted as a prime example of two-person zero-sum games and different researchers found that professional soccer players’ behaviour resembles mixed strategies Nash equilibrium (e.g. Palacios-Huerta, 2003). Not only in this respect but also in general research on penalty kicking researchers predominantly focused on spatial decision making of penalty takers and goalkeepers without considering temporal aspects of players’ decisions (van der Kamp, Dicks, Navia, & Noël, 2017). However, it is known that penalty takers can either choose for a target area before they start to run-up or wait for the goalkeeper to commit to one side of the goal to kick to the undefended goal side (van der Kamp, 2006). Goalkeepers can decide/start to move relatively early or late during the penalty takers’ run-up (Kuhn, 1988). The current study focused on these temporal aspects of decision making while also considering the interaction between goalkeepers and penalty takers that influences the probabilities of scoring. Results show that goalkeepers should more often move relatively late than early (64% vs. 36%), and that penalty takers should wait for the goalkeeper’s reaction more often than deciding where to kick in advance (55% vs. 45%). This way, both opponents would maximise their chances without their behaviour being easily predictable. However, especially penalty takers behave differently than game theory-based recommendations would suggest. This discrepancy and benefits of applying different kinds of analyses within the same (theoretical) framework are discussed considering action recommendations for penalty takers and goalkeepers based on previous research.
TitelAbstract book : 50 years of FEPSAC. 15th European congress of sport & exercise psychology, Münster, Germany, 15-20 July 2019
Herausgeber*innenBernd Strauss, Barbara Halberschmidt, Till Utesch, Dennis Dreiskämper, Sebastian Brückner, Maike Tietjens, Vera Storm, Linda Schücker, Friederike Rosenfeld, Charlotte Raue, Stijn Mentzel, Meike Kolb, Lena Henning, Lena Busch
Herausgeber (Verlag)Department of Sport and Exercise Psychology, University of Muenster
PublikationsstatusVeröffentlicht - 2019
VeranstaltungFEPSAC 2019 - 15th European congress of sport & exercise psychology: Building the future of sport & exercise psychology - Universität Münster, Münster, Deutschland
Dauer: 15.07.201920.07.2019
Konferenznummer: 15


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