Coaching zur Steigerung der körperlichen Aktivität: Systematische Übersicht und empirische sowie konzeptionelle Arbeiten unter besonderer Berücksichtigung des Arbeitsplatzes

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More than half of the population is not suffi- ciently physically active to compensate for daily sedentary time, e.g., at work. The World Health Organization identifies the workplace as a key setting for measures to increase physical activ- ity because it has many special characteristics, such as good accessibility for different popula- tion groups. However, there are differences in accessibility for individual occupational groups. One occupational group that is very difficult to reach at the workplace and has therefore been neglected in health promotion is professional drivers. For this occupational group in particu- lar, but also for the workplace in general, it is essential to carefully develop and evaluate ef- fective measures to increase physical activity. One measure for increasing physical activity that has shown particular promise in the work- place is coaching. This is as a person-centered approach that aims to empower and encourage coachees (individuals to be coached) to (re)take responsibility for their own activity behavior in order to permanently change this behavior. Coaching to increase physical activity is based on several coaching parameters, such as the temporal parameters (e.g., number and fre- quency of coaching interactions), organiza- tional parameters (e.g., communication me- dium), and coaching techniques (i.e., behavior change techniques).
The overall goal of the dissertation is to analyze various design options for coaching to increase physical activity (including theory-based ap- proaches, use of coaching techniques) with particular attention to the workplace. To ad- dress this overarching goal, a total of four sub- ordinate objectives were developed.
The aim of the first publication was to provide the first systematic review of coaching to in- crease physical activity in order to present the state of research in this area of research to date. Publication 1 summarized as a core result a va- riety of different coaching interventions with their coaching parameters for increasing phys- ical activity in the workplace from the literature to date. This diversity can be attributed to the diverse and flexible design options of each coaching parameter. Thus, the coaching pa- rameters allow for a high degree of individual- ization of the coaching. Almost all of them showed at least a small positive effect on at least one of the physical activity variables.
The aim of the second publication was to eval- uate a theory-based motivational and volitional coaching to increase physical activity in profes- sional drivers. Two intervention groups re- ceived motivational coaching, one intervention group received additionally volitional coaching, and the control group received no coaching. For physical activity, all three groups received a vehicle-integrated fitness device. Publication 2 showed that physical activity increased in all three groups. However, neither the

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motivational nor volitional coaching led to the expected result regarding increasing the moti- vational and volitional processes. Therefore, it could not be evaluated as a successful strategy for professional drivers. One rationale for the increase in physical activity among all profes- sional drivers could have been the provision of the vehicle-integrated fitness device as an op- portunity to be physically active, as opportuni- ties to be physically active are limited for this occupational group.
The aim of the third publication was a theory- based analysis of the needs of professional drivers using qualitative interviews in order to derive individualized measures (besides coach- ing) to increase physical activity at the work- place. Publication 3 reflected a wide range of different needs in terms of capabilities, oppor- tunities in the environment, and motivational aspects. It was found that the needs of these categories cannot be considered separately. Accordingly, for the development of measures to increase physical activity among professional drivers, this means that the improvement of skills, the provision of opportunities in the en- vironment and the increase of motivation should be considered in combination.
The aim of the fourth publication was to pre- sent a theoretical derivation and illustration of a theory-based motivational and volitional coaching to increase physical activity in order to counteract the lack of theoretical derivations of health-promoting interventions in the
literature. Publication 4 exemplified how theo- ries and models can be used as starting points for a coaching intervention, from which the ap- propriate coaching techniques can be derived. For this coaching, theory-based coaching tools were developed based on the selected coach- ing techniques, as well as a theory-based guide for selecting the appropriate coaching tool tai- lored to the individual needs of the coachees.
In summary, the systematic review, empirical and conceptual work of this dissertation demonstrate that coaching is a 1) theory- based, 2) highly individualizable, and 3) com- binable intervention for increasing physical ac- tivity in the workplace. In summary, with regard to 1) theory-based, the results of this disserta- tion show that theories and models assist in making reasoned decisions for specific coach- ing techniques, thus making the theoretical mechanisms of action visible for further re- search and practice. Furthermore, the results show that coaching is a flexible but also com- plex measure due to the 2) high degree of indi- vidualization of the many coaching parameters. On the one hand, the high degree of individu- alization creates the challenge that coaching is difficult to compare, on the other hand, it offers the chance to adapt all parameters to the set- ting and its specifics as well as to the target group and its preferences and needs, in order to achieve the greatest possible effectiveness. With regard to 3) combinability, the results of this dissertation show that in addition to

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coaching as a behavioral measure in the work- place, circumstance-oriented measures (e.g., provided training equipment, creation of spaces for physical activity) also offer potential. This combination can enhance the holistic na- ture of activity promotion. The holistic nature can be realized through the promotion of the individual ́s own motivational and volitional abilities with the help of coaching as well as through the change of setting.
In conclusion, this dissertation contributes to continue the research on coaching and its de- sign options and to highlight coaching to in- crease physical activity as a theory-based and well-combinable intervention that can be de- signed in a complex but also highly individual- izable way due to its many coaching parame- ters. Through these individualizable design op- tions, coaching as a measure can be adapted to the workplace and its specifics.
Original languageGerman
Place of PublicationKöln
PublisherDeutsche Sporthochschule Köln
Number of pages118
Publication statusPublished - 2024