Comparison of in vitro approaches for predicting the metabolism of the selective androgen receptor modulator RAD140

Felicitas Wagener, Nana Naumann, Valentin Göldner, Christian Görgens, Sven Guddat, Uwe Karst, Mario Thevis

Publication: Contribution to journalJournal articlesResearchpeer-review


The identification of metabolites allows for the expansion of possible targets for anti-doping analysis. Especially for novel substances such as selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs), information on metabolic fate is scarce. Novel approaches such as the organ on a chip technology may provide a metabolic profile that resembles human in vivo samples more closely than approaches that rely on human liver fractions only. In this study, the SARM RAD140 was metabolized by means of subcellular human liver fractions, human liver spheroids in an organ on a chip platform, and electrochemical (EC) conversion. The resulting metabolites were analyzed with LC-HRMS/MS and compared to a human doping control urine sample that yielded an adverse analytical finding for RAD140. A total of 16 metabolites were detected in urine, while 14, 13, and 7 metabolites were detected in samples obtained from the organ on a chip experiment, the subcellular liver fraction, and EC experiments, respectively. All tested techniques resulted in the detection of RAD140 metabolites. In the organ on a chip samples, the highest number of metabolites were detected. The subcellular liver fractions and organ on a chip techniques are deemed complementary to predict metabolites of RAD140, as both techniques produce distinct metabolites that are also found in an anonymized human in vivo urine sample. Graphical abstract
Original languageEnglish
JournalAnalytical and bioanalytical chemistry
Pages (from-to)5657-5669
Number of pages13
Publication statusPublished - 08.07.2023


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