Differing Water Intake and Hydration Status in Three European Countries: A Day-to-Day Analysis

Hans Braun, Judith von Andrian-Werburg, Olga Malisova, Adelais Athanasatou, Maria Kapsokefalou, Juan F. Ortega, Ricardo Mora-Rodriguez, Mario Thevis

Publication: Contribution to journalJournal articlesResearchpeer-review


Adequate hydration is essential for maintaining health and functionality of the human body. Studies assessing both daily water intake and hydration status are lacking. This study explored data from the European Hydration Research Study (EHRS) and focused on total water intake (TWI), 24 h hydration status, and day-to-day variations in a sample of 573 healthy adults. TWI was assessed by food records and hydration status (urine osmolality and urine volume) was measured from 24 urine samples collected over seven consecutive days. On all weekdays, mean TWI was higher (p < 0.001 for all days) for the German subjects compared to the Greek and Spanish participants. In 37% of the male and 22% of the female subjects, the individual mean TWI was below the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) recommendation, with 16% men (4% women) being below the EFSA recommendation on every testing day. Twenty-four hour urine osmolality was lower in women compared to men (595 ± 261 vs. 681 ± 237 mOsmol/kg; p < 0.001). More men (40%) showed a urine osmolality ≥800 mOsmol/kg at least on four days of the study period compared to women (26%) and more participants from Spain (46%) compared to Greece (29%) and Germany (11%). A large number of individuals showed an inadequate hydration status on several days per week, which may have a negative health and cognitive impact on daily life.
Original languageEnglish
Article number773
Issue number4
Number of pages13
Publication statusPublished - 04.2019

Research areas and keywords

  • Adult
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Drinking
  • Eating
  • Europe
  • Female
  • Health Status
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Organism Hydration Status
  • Osmolar Concentration
  • Sex Factors
  • Time Factors
  • Urination
  • Urine/chemistry
  • Water-Electrolyte Balance
  • Young Adult


Dive into the research topics of 'Differing Water Intake and Hydration Status in Three European Countries: A Day-to-Day Analysis'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.