Effekte eines dynamischen Ganzkörper-EMS-Trainings auf die körperliche Leistungsfähigkeit von professionellen Fußballspielern und ausgewählte Belastungsmarker im Blut

Publication: Book/ReportDissertations

Abstract

The aim of the present study is to point out a stimulation design for the use in high- performance sport through a systematic review by analysing the existing EMS studies and to test it in a field study with elite soccer players. In this context, the effects on physiological and biological level will be investigated in order to draw conclusions about possible adaptation mechanisms.
Twenty-two field-players were assigned to 2 groups: EMS group (EG, n=12), jump-training group (TG, n=10). The EG conducted a whole-body-EMS (WB-EMS) training twice a week concurrent to 6-7 soccer-training sessions over a period of 14 weeks. To eliminate the effects of the squat jumps performed under EMS, the TG performed the same number of jumps as the EG in identical execution. With the training start of the second half of the season the players were tested before (baseline), during (wk-7) and after (wk-14). In addition to the soccer relevant strength and performance parameters, in each test the
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creatine kinase values (CK) and the insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) were measured in the blood serum before (Pre), 15-30 min after (Post) and 24 hours after (24h Post) the training intervention. Regarding the rheological parameters of the blood, the red blood cell (RBC) deformability (EImax and EI 3Pa) and in this context relevant parameters (RBC-NOS/NO- signaling pathway) were measured. Blood samples were collected again in week 18 (wk18) after a maintenance period of 4 weeks (1 session/week) in order to detect changes in the RBC-deformability.
The stimulation design (rectangular biphasic waveform, impulse width 350 μs, impulse frequency 80 Hz, impulses on-time 4s, off-time 10s) defined by the analysis of the systematic reviews was successfully tested in the field study with professional soccer players. After 14 weeks, statistically significant increases were detected in the 1RM of the one-legged leg press together with an improvement in the linear short sprints, sprints with directional changes, vertical jump abilities, and an improvement in the ball kick velocity. The TG showed no changes in maximal strength or performance parameters. With regard to blood parameters, only the EG showed a significant increase in the CK values. The IGF-1 remained unchanged in both groups until week 14. The maximum RBC-deformabililtiy (EImax) as well as the deformability at low shear stress (EI 3Pa), as found in the microcirculation, increased in the EG. The EImax remained unchanged in the TG. However, the EI 3Pa also increased in the TG until week 7. This could be explained by the increase in training volume after the midseason break. The acute increase in EImax in the EG in at baseline can be explained by an increase in RBC-NOS activation. It must be presumed that, further mechanisms must be responsible for the chronic increase in EImax.
The results reveal that two dynamic WB-EMS sessions in addition to 6-7 soccer-training sessions and one game per week can be sufficient to significantly improve the soccer relevant strength and performance parameters of professional players during the season. Furthermore, the results indicate that WB-EMS can offer an effective and time-saving complementrary training method in addition to usual training to influence oxygenation of the muscles and organs in the microcirculation and thus have a positive effect on the development of strength capabilities and performance in high performance sports. This was indicated by the increase in RBC-deformability.
Original languageGerman
Place of PublicationKöln
PublisherDeutsche Sporthochschule Köln
Number of pages76
Publication statusPublished - 2018

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