Identification and characterization of in vitro and in vivo generated metabolites of the adiponectin receptor agonists AdipoRon and 112254

Josef Dib, Andreas Thomas, Philippe Delahaut, Eric Fichant, Wilhelm Schänzer, Mario Thevis

Publication: Contribution to journalJournal articlesResearchpeer-review

Abstract

Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator 1α (PGC-1α), sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) and adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) are regulators of transcriptional processes and effects of exercise and pseudo-exercise situations. Compounds occasionally referred to as endurance exercise mimetics such as AdipoRon and 112254, both adiponectin receptor agonists, can be used to simulate the physiology of endurance exercise via pathways including these transcriptional regulators. Adiponectin supports fatty acid utilization and triglyceride-content reduction in cells and increases both the mitochondrial biogenesis and the oxidative metabolism in muscle cells. In routine doping control analysis, knowledge about phase-I and -II metabolic products of target analytes is essential. Hence, in vitro- and in vivo-metabolism experiments are frequently employed tools in preventive doping research to determine potential urinary metabolites for sports drug testing purposes, especially concerning new, (yet) unapproved compounds. In the present study, in vitro assays were conducted using human liver microsomal and S9 fractions, and rat in vivo experiments were performed using both AdipoRon and 112254. For AdipoRon, obtained samples were analyzed using liquid chromatography-high resolution/high accuracy (tandem) mass spectrometry with both electrospray ionization or atmospheric-pressure chemical ionization techniques. Overall, more than five phase I-metabolites were found in vitro and in vivo, including particularly monohydroxylated and hydrogenated species. No phase II-metabolites were found in vitro; conversely, signals suggesting the presence of glucuronic acid or other conjugates in samples collected from in vivo experiment were observed, the structures of which were however not conclusively identified. Also for 112254, several phase-I metabolites were found in vitro, e.g. monohydroxylated and demethylated species. Here, no phase II-metabolites were observed neither using in vitro nor in vivo samples. Based on the generated data, the implementation of metabolites and unmodified drug candidates into routine doping control protocols is deemed warranted for comprehensive sports drug testing programs until human elimination study data are available.

Original languageEnglish
JournalJournal of pharmaceutical and biomedical analysis
Volume125
Issue numberJune
Pages (from-to)68-76
Number of pages9
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2016

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