AIM: To evaluate the effects of a multimodal intervention (including exercise training, psychosocial interventions, nutrition coaching, smoking cessation program, medical care) on the health and long-term cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality risk of company employees with pre-diabetes or diabetes mellitus (DM) at high CVD risk.
METHODS: In the PreFord study, German company employees (n=4196) participated in a free-of-charge CVD mortality risk screening at their workplace. Based on their European Society of Cardiology - Systematic Coronary Risk Evaluation score (ESC-SCORE), they were subdivided into three risk groups. High-risk patients (ESC-SCORE≥5%) were randomly assigned to a 15-week lifestyle intervention or usual care control group. Data from patients with pre-DM/DM were analyzed intention-to-treat (ITT: n=110 versus n=96) and per protocol (PP: n=60 versus n=52).
RESULTS: Body mass index, glycated hemoglobin, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, triglyceride levels as well as systolic and diastolic blood pressure improved through the intervention (ITT, PP: p<0.001). The ESC-SCORE markedly decreased from pre- to post-intervention (ITT, PP: p<0.001). ESC-SCORE changes from baseline differed significantly between the groups, with the intervention group achieving more favorable results in all follow-up visits 6, 12, 24 and 36 months later (at each time point: ITT: p<0.001; PP: p ≤ 0.010).
CONCLUSION: The study demonstrates the feasibility of attracting employees with pre-DM/DM at high CVD mortality risk to participate in a multimodal lifestyle program following a free CVD mortality risk screening at their workplace. The lifestyle intervention used in the PreFord study shows high potential for improving health of company employees with pre-DM/DM in the long term. ISRCTN23536103.
Research areas and keywords
- Prediabetic State
- Follow-Up Studies
- Risk Factors
- Diabetes Mellitus
- Life Style
- Cardiovascular Diseases/prevention & control