Strength, Endurance, Throwing Velocity and in-Water Jump Performance of Elite German Water Polo Players

Christoph Zinner, Billy Sperlich, Malte Krueger, Tim Focke, Jennifer Reed, Joachim Mester

Publication: Contribution to journalJournal articlesResearchpeer-review


The purpose of this study was threefold: 1) to assess the eggbeater kick and throwing performance using a number of water polo specific tests, 2) to explore the relation between the eggbeater kick and throwing performance, and 3) to investigate the relation between the eggbeater kick in the water and strength tests performed in a controlled laboratory setting in elite water polo players. Fifteen male water polo players of the German National Team completed dynamic and isometric strength tests for muscle groups (adductor, abductor, abdominal, pectoralis) frequently used during water polo. After these laboratory strength tests, six water polo specific in-water tests were conducted. The eggbeater kick assessed leg endurance and agility, maximal throwing velocity and jump height. A 400 m test and a sprint test examined aerobic and anaerobic performance. The strongest correlation was found between jump height and arm length (p < 0.001, r = 0.89). The laboratory diagnostics of important muscles showed positive correlations with the results of the in-water tests (p < 0.05, r = 0.52-0.70). Muscular strength of the adductor, abdominal and pectoralis muscles was positively related to in-water endurance agility as assessed by the eggbeater kick (p < 0.05; r = 0.53-0.66). Findings from the current study emphasize the need to assess indices of water polo performance both in and out of the water as well as the relation among these parameters to best assess the complex profile of water polo players.

Original languageEnglish
Issue number1
Pages (from-to)149-56
Number of pages8
Publication statusPublished - 29.03.2015


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