The Influence of Environmental Constraints in 360° Videos on Decision Making in Soccer

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Decision making is an important prerequisite of soccer expertise. Beyond expertise, considering the effects of environmental constraints on decision-making processes could help specify existing theories. To address this gap, expert and nonexpert soccer players were enrolled to test how environmental constraints affect decision-making processes. Environmental constraints were experimentally manipulated: Opponent pressure was implemented by presenting a close opponent player in soccer scenes, time constraint was implemented by providing short time intervals for making the decision, and first-person perspective was implemented by using 360° videos. The experts outperformed the nonexperts, and the results showed significant main effects of time constraint and opponent pressure, but not perspective. The players' option and decision quality improved under the time constraint but were negatively affected by opponent pressure. The negative effects of opponent pressure were especially true under limited time and in third-person perspective. The results, alternative manipulations, and implications of environmental effects are discussed for decision-making research.
Original languageEnglish
JournalJournal of Sport and Exercise Psychology
Issue number5
Pages (from-to)365-374
Number of pages10
Publication statusPublished - 10.2021

Research areas and keywords

  • expertise
  • football
  • option generation
  • take-the-first heuristic


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