Untersuchungen zum Ernährungsstatus, Hydratationsstatus und Nahrungsergänzungsmittelkonsum in ausgewählten Bevölkerungsgruppen

Hans Braun*

*Corresponding author for this work

Publication: Book/ReportDissertations

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A needs-based energy and nutrient supply is necessary to maintain human health and performance in the long term. Despite known limitations, the description of nutrient intake via nutrition survey instruments is a widely used and accepted tool. Where possible, appropriate anthropometric and clinical parameters should be integrated, in the assessment of the nutritional situation.
The aim of this dissertation is to present, evaluate and discuss the nutritional status, hydration status and dietary supplement use in selected population groups via different established methods.
Despite numerous publications on dietary behaviour, there are still population groups that have not been sufficiently studied and described. According to the world football association (FIFA), more than 30 million women footballers are active. Studies on the dietary behaviour of this group are only available rarely. In the course of this dissertation, it was shown that the nutritional status of young female German footballers is not adequate with regard to sport-specific recommendations on nutrient intake as well as independent clinical parameters.
Various international organisations are pointing out that athletes should compensate for a possible insufficient nutrient intake via a basic diet suitable for sport. Only in the second step, athletes should examine the consumption of dietary supplements (DS) based on an individual risk-benefit assessment. A survey of young German athletes showed that DS consumption is higher compared to the normal population. Vitamin and mineral preparations are preferably used by the athletes. It cannot be ruled out that this leads to a DS related excessive intake of micronutrients, which can become a risk of side effects in terms of health and performance development as a result of exceeding the Upper Intake levels. The recording and evaluation of DS consumption should therefore be integrated within the framework of (sport-specific) nutrition advice. Based on these results, it generally seems necessary to educate young athletes even more intensively about the relevance and implementation of a sport-appropriate diet and to integrate the appropriate personal and sporting environment of the athletes into this process.
Another special characteristic of the group of competitive athletes is the sports-related sweat rate resulting in increased water needs. The daily water requirement is not a fixed quantity but varies due to various factors also in the normal population. Therefore, the water supply as the solely parameter in the evaluation of the hydration status is not sufficient and should be supplemented with non-invasive parameters such as urine osmolality and urine volume. Studies on hydration status are often not comparable due to different methods. Therefore, the aim of the European Hydration Research Study (EHRS) was to use a uniform methodological approach to collect and compare water intake and hydration status in three European countries. This was the first study to have recorded both water intake and markers of hydration status in various European countries in parallel with a uniform methodology. The study presents a satisfactory mean total water intake in line with the recommendation of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). However, a look at the individual values shows an individual variance with an unsatisfactory situation, especially in Greece and Spain, especially for men.
Results and findings from the work presented in this dissertation have already been used to provide information on improving the nutritional situation, hydration status and reducing the risks of improper DS use to active persons in sports (e.g., athletes, coaches and parents) as well as in the normal population (e.g., police officers). In addition, the results will be used to further develop the methodology of data collection and to apply them in new projects.
Original languageGerman
Place of PublicationKöln
PublisherDeutsche Sporthochschule Köln
Number of pages135
Publication statusPublished - 2021