Untersuchungen zur Validität und Reliabilität eines neuen Testverfahrens zur Bestimmung der anaeroben Leistungsfähigkeit

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Physiological performance diagnostics are essential to evaluate proficiency level and provide future training direction. Reliable and valid aerobic test procedures have been developed but tests assessing the anaerobic capacity are less common. While the bicycle ergometer has been used to evaluate anaerobic capacity (Hauser 2012; Weber, 2003), the development of such tests for the treadmill is still in its infancy. Margaria et al. (1966) introduced a “stair-test” to determine alactic capability in individuals. Lakomy (1987) developed an alternate test procedure utilising predominantly biomechanical analysis and Hamilton et al. (1991) developed this further to include other physiological parameters. This test design has been widely employed (Bracken et al., 2012; Brooks et al.,1990; Brughelli et al., 2010, 2011; De Witt et al., 2009; Greenhaff et al., 1994; Hamilton et al., 1991; Highton et al., 2012; Hoffman et al., 2009; Holmyard et al., 1988, 1994; Lim & Chia, 2007; Manson et al., 2014; Nevill et al., 1989, 1993; Oliver et al., 2007; Ratel et al., 2006; Rumpf et al., 2011; Sear et al., 2010; Siegler et al., 2012; Sirotic et al., 2007, 2008; Tong et al., 2001). In contrast, tests to determine anaerobic ability have not been widely employed (Assuncao et al., 2017; Bidaurrazaga-Letona, 2017; Krings, 2016; Nikolaidis et al., 2016; Pantoja et al., 2016). This study aims to design a field test capable of measuring anaerobic capacity by utilising a running track, playing field or treadmill. Sprints of various time durations were conducted over a linear, and change in direction course. Maximal lactate accumulation (VLamax) was used to determine anaerobic capacity (Mader, 1994): 〖VLa〗_max=(〖Max〗_AELA-R_La)/(t_e-t_alac ) equation 1 MaxAELA = maximal lactate concentration after exercise (= MaxLa) RLa = resting lactate te = time of exercise talac = alactacid time Study 1 The study 1 was conducted in three parts. Part 1 involved 25 participants performing an incremental step test on a running track followed by several linear sprints with different time durations (8, 10, 12, 14 seconds) on different days. Part 2 involved participants performing a 10 or 12 second sprint run on a nonmotorized treadmill. Part 3 involved 23 athletes performing a 10 second sprint on a running track and nonmotorized treadmill on consecutive days. For all parts of study reliability for VLamax was proven. There were no significant differences between both sprint tests for the VLamax. These results demonstrate that both tests are reliable tools with which to assess anaerobic capacity. Study 2 Study 2 was divided into two parts with 21 athletes completing Part 1 and 30 Part 2. All subjects were endurance runners or sprinters. They performed an aerobic step test and an 10 second linear sprint on the running track and an additional 10 second sprint run on nonmotorized treadmill. VO2max was also assed in all athletes by expired gas analysis. In Part I of the study participants performed sprints once daily on two consecutive days. In Part 2 participants ran a 10 second linear sprint on both running track and nonmotorized treadmill. Results showed good reliability and validity for VLamax in both Part 1 and 2 of the study. Results from the anaerobic sprint tests and VO2max were used to compare sprinters and endurance athletes. Findings suggest that maximal lactate production rate can be used to distinguish between these two types of athletes. Study 3 Study 3 was divided into two parts with 20 male soccer players participating in Part 1 and 45 players in Part 2. All subjects performed aerobic step test on a running track, a linear sprint with change in direction on a soccer playing field and a 12 second sprint run on nonmotorized treadmill and a test to determine VO2max (VO2max test). In Part I, participants performed both sprint tests (linear field test and treadmill test) on two consecutive days. In Part 2, participants performed the change in direction field sprint and the 12 second treadmill test. Results showed high reliability for LPRmax with both tests. The high correlation coefficients identified also support the validity of testing procedures. Assessment of VO2max in combination with other parameters like VLamax allows coaches and other professionals to assess the performance capacity of individual athletes which in turn directs future training. The field tests developed in this study to assess anaerobic capacity were proven reliable but further research is required to determine their true validity.
Original languageGerman
Place of PublicationKöln
PublisherDeutsche Sporthochschule Köln
Number of pages103
Publication statusPublished - 2018