Applied physiology in inline speed skating – cardiorespiratory demands, exercise testing and endurance training

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Körperliche Aktivität und Trainingverbessern die Funktion der jeweils beanspruchten Strukturen und bewirken einehöhere und ökonomischere Leistungsfähigkeit. Training ist definiert als „systematische und zielgerichteteAktivierung der Muskulatur mit dem Ziel die Leistungsfähigkeit durchmorphologische (strukturelle) und funktionelle Anpassungen zu steigern.“(Hollmann & Strüder, 2009) mit dem Ziel die maximale Leistungsfähigkeit zuerreichen.

In traditionellen Sportarten stehtTrainern und Athleten ein umfangreiches Wissen über die sportspezifischenAnforderungen, Leistungsdiagnostik, technisch und taktisch beeinflussendeFaktoren sowie Technik- und Wettkampfsimulationen zur Verfügung, die inVerbindung mit einem 10 bis 15 Jahre langen leistungsorientierten Training zumhöchsten Leistungsniveau mit persönlichen Bestleistungen führen. Demzufolgebesteht in recht jungen Sportarten, wie dem Inline Speed Skating, noch eingroßes Potential maximale Leistungen der Athleten zu entwickeln und zu erweitern.Aus diesen Gründen untersucht die vorliegende kumulative Dissertation daskardiorespiratorische Anforderungsprofil während eines Inline Speed SkatingMarathons, vergleicht sportartspezifische und unspezifischeAusdauerleistungsdiagnostiken (Laufen, Radfahren) und untersucht die Effektevon unspezifischem (Laufen, Radfahren) Ausdauertraining auf die spezifischeAusdauerleistungsfähigkeit und die Sprintleistung. Die resultierendenErgebnisse ermöglichen ein besseres Verständnis über die physiologischenAnforderungen im Inline Speed Skating und liefern essentielle Informationen fürein professionelles zielgerichtetes Training.

Für die durchgeführtenwissenschaftlichen Untersuchungen wurden ausschließlich hochtrainierte Athletenrekrutiert. So nahm an der ersten Studie ein männlicher Athlet (20 Jahre, 73,4kg, 178 cm), acht männliche Athleten in der zweiten Studie (30 ± 4 Jahre, 71,6± 8,8 kg, 176,5 ± 5,4 cm) und jeweils acht männliche und weibliche Athleten (24± 8 Jahre, 67,5 ± 10,6 kg, 175,4 ± 9,7 cm) in der dritten Studie teil. DieErgebnisse zeigten einen sehr unregelmäßigen Rennverlauf über dieMarathondistanz, der sowohl die aerobe als auch die anaerobe Kapazitätbeansprucht. Entsprechend der Ergebnisse der zweiten Studie kann sowohl eineLeistungsdiagnostik auf dem Fahrradergometer als auch ein Feldstufentest imLaufen als eine geeignete Alternative für einen methodisch sehr aufwändigenspezifischen Feldstufentest im Inline Speed Skating betrachtet werden. Dasangewandte unspezifische Lauf- und Radfahrtraining im Rahmen der dritten Studiewar gleichermaßen effektiv, um sowohl die sportartspezifische Ausdauerleistungsfähigkeitund Sprintleistung als auch die Erholungsfähigkeit im Inline Speed Skating zuverbessern. Dabei zeigten Athleten, die auf dem Laufband trainierten, eineverbesserte Nutzung des Fettstoffwechsels. Während das Lauftraining zeitlichökonomischer ist (-9min/Trainingseinheit), scheint das Radfahrtraining diesportartspezifische Herzfrequenzregulation besser zu imitieren. Die Annahme,dass Radfahren den spezifischen Bewegungsablauf und Muskelrekrutierung desInline Speed Skatings besser imitiert als Laufen, kann aufgrund dervorliegenden Ergebnisse nicht bestätigt werden. Denn entgegen dieser Annahmeführte das Lauftraining zu bevorzugten Anpassungen in der sportartspezifischenSprintfähigkeit und ist weniger zeitaufwändig.

Abschließend kann davon ausgegangenwerden, dass wenn eine unspezifische Leistungsdiagnostik zu vergleichbarenErgebnissen führt, ein unspezifisches Ausdauertraining ebenfalls in vergleichbarenTrainingsanpassungen resultiert. Demzufolge scheinen die unterschiedlichenBewegungsformen (Radfahren, Laufen, Inline Speed Skating) trotz ihrerverschiedenen Muskelfaserrekrutierungen, Kontraktionsformen und Umfängen derbeteiligten Muskelmasse vergleichbare Ergebnisse in den Trainingsanpassungennach Ausdauertraining zu erzielen.

Die vorliegendeDissertationsschrift liefert sowohl grundlegende Informationen über daswettkampfbezogene kardiorespiratorische Anforderungsprofil, als auch über Leistungsdiagnostikund Trainingssteuerung im Inline Speed Skating, die erforderlich sind, um diesejunge Sportart voranzutreiben und ein höheres Leistungsniveau zu ermöglichen.Auf Grundlage dieser Ergebnisse sind weitere Untersuchungen notwendig, um ein tieferesVerständnis für die verschiedenen Einflüsse des einzigartigen Bewegungsablaufsim Inline Speed Skating zu erlangen. Hierzu wäre es sinnvoll eine komplexeLeistungsdiagnostik, die Ausdauer-, Kraft-, Schnelligkeits- undKoordinationstest umfasst, zu entwickeln und zu analysieren. Optimaler Weisesollten solche Untersuchungen international angelegt sein, um ausreichendEliteathleten rekrutieren zu können.


Physical activity and exercise improves function of the trained structures and causes a higher and more economic performance. Training is defined as a “systematic and targeted activation of the muscles with the objective to improve performance through morphological (structural) and functional adaptations” (Hollmann & Strüder, 2009) and aimed to reach and increase peak performance. The more intensive the demand placed on an organ – within its physiological limits – the stronger the adaptations to the strain. This results in a higher level of performance and resistance (Hollmann & Strüder, 2009).In sports with long traditions there already is a bright insight into sport-specific demands, performance diagnostics, technical and tactical influencing factors and exercise models are available. This knowledge enables athletes and coaches to develop a high level of performance with personal best based on 10 to 15 years of performance-minded training. Conversely, in young sports such as inline speed skating, there is still great potential to develop and expand peak performances of competing athletes. For this reason this cumulative thesis investigates the cardiorespiratory demands during an inline speed skating marathon road race; compares sport-specific and non-specific (running, cycling) exercise testing; and examines the effects of non-specific endurance training (running or cycling) on the specific endurance and sprint performance of inline speed skaters. The results serve to promote a greater understanding of the physiological demands of ISS and deliver essential information for professional training programs.Only highly trained athletes were included in the studies with one male athlete taking part in the first study (20 yrs, 73.4 kg, 178 cm), eight male athletes in the second study (30 ± 4 yrs, 71.6 ± 8.8 kg, 176.5 ± 5.4 cm) and eight male and female athletes each in the third study (24 ± 8 yrs, 67.5 ± 10.6 kg, 175.4 ± 9.7 cm). The obtained results revealed a very fluctuating racing pattern for the marathon, demanding both a high level of aerobic and anaerobic capacity. The second study proved that both a cycling and a running exercise tests can be considered as qualified alternatives for a challenging ISS test, but a sport-specific test should be conducted when a high level of precision is required. The applied non-specific cycling and running endurance training program within the third study was equally effective in improving inline speed skaters´ sport-specific aerobic capacity and sprint performance, as well as affecting a faster recovery. Moreover, athletes who trained in the running group showed a higher reliance on fat metabolism compared to the cycling group. While the running training program provides the more economical choice (~9 min/session), cycling imitates the specific HR regulation better than running. It can be suggested that cycling imitates the special movement pattern and muscle unit recruitment of inline speed skating better than running; however, the results of this thesis cannot claim this assumption is true. Contrary to this, running training revealed preferable adaptations for the specific sprint capacity and is less time consuming.Finally, it can be assumed that comparable results in non-specific exercise testing also induce comparable adaptations after non-specific endurance training. In conclusion, despite the different movement patterns including diverse muscle fiber recruitment, amount of activated muscle mass and type of contraction, physiological adaptations to endurance training generated similar results.The present thesis provides basic information about the cardiorespiratory competitive demand profile, as well as about exercise testing and training in inline speed skating that is essential to advance this young sport and enable a high level of performance. Based on these findings further research is required to gain a deeper understanding about the impacts of the unique movement pattern in inline speed skating. For this purpose it would prove useful to develop and analyze complex performance diagnostics including endurance, strength, swiftness and coordination tests. Optimally those investigations will be structured internationally in order to recruit an adequate amount of elite athletes.
Physical activity and exercise improves function of the trained structures and causes a higher and more economic performance. Training is defined as a “systematic and targeted activation of the muscles with the objective to improve performance through morphological (structural) and functional adaptations” (Hollmann & Strüder, 2009) and aimed to reach and increase peak performance. The more intensive the demand placed on an organ – within its physiological limits – the stronger the adaptations to the strain. This results in a higher level of performance and resistance (Hollmann & Strüder, 2009).In sports with long traditions there already is a bright insight into sport-specific demands, performance diagnostics, technical and tactical influencing factors and exercise models are available. This knowledge enables athletes and coaches to develop a high level of performance with personal best based on 10 to 15 years of performance-minded training. Conversely, in young sports such as inline speed skating, there is still great potential to develop and expand peak performances of competing athletes. For this reason this cumulative thesis investigates the cardiorespiratory demands during an inline speed skating marathon road race; compares sport-specific and non-specific (running, cycling) exercise testing; and examines the effects of non-specific endurance training (running or cycling) on the specific endurance and sprint performance of inline speed skaters. The results serve to promote a greater understanding of the physiological demands of ISS and deliver essential information for professional training programs.Only highly trained athletes were included in the studies with one male athlete taking part in the first study (20 yrs, 73.4 kg, 178 cm), eight male athletes in the second study (30 ± 4 yrs, 71.6 ± 8.8 kg, 176.5 ± 5.4 cm) and eight male and female athletes each in the third study (24 ± 8 yrs, 67.5 ± 10.6 kg, 175.4 ± 9.7 cm). The obtained results revealed a very fluctuating racing pattern for the marathon, demanding both a high level of aerobic and anaerobic capacity. The second study proved that both a cycling and a running exercise tests can be considered as qualified alternatives for a challenging ISS test, but a sport-specific test should be conducted when a high level of precision is required. The applied non-specific cycling and running endurance training program within the third study was equally effective in improving inline speed skaters´ sport-specific aerobic capacity and sprint performance, as well as affecting a faster recovery. Moreover, athletes who trained in the running group showed a higher reliance on fat metabolism compared to the cycling group. While the running training program provides the more economical choice (~9 min/session), cycling imitates the specific HR regulation better than running. It can be suggested that cycling imitates the special movement pattern and muscle unit recruitment of inline speed skating better than running; however, the results of this thesis cannot claim this assumption is true. Contrary to this, running training revealed preferable adaptations for the specific sprint capacity and is less time consuming.Finally, it can be assumed that comparable results in non-specific exercise testing also induce comparable adaptations after non-specific endurance training. In conclusion, despite the different movement patterns including diverse muscle fiber recruitment, amount of activated muscle mass and type of contraction, physiological adaptations to endurance training generated similar results.The present thesis provides basic information about the cardiorespiratory competitive demand profile, as well as about exercise testing and training in inline speed skating that is essential to advance this young sport and enable a high level of performance. Based on these findings further research is required to gain a deeper understanding about the impacts of the unique movement pattern in inline speed skating. For this purpose it would prove useful to develop and analyze complex performance diagnostics including endurance, strength, swiftness and coordination tests. Optimally those investigations will be structured internationally in order to recruit an adequate amount of elite athletes.


Titel in ÜbersetzungAngewandte Physiologie im Inline Speed Skating - kardiorespiratorische Anforderungen, Leistungsdiagnostik und Ausdauertraining
OriginalspracheEnglisch
ErscheinungsortKöln
Herausgeber/inDeutsche Sporthochschule Köln
Seitenumfang164
PublikationsstatusVeröffentlicht - 2015

Bibliographische Notiz

Disputation: 2015

ID: 1569076

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