Experiences of LGBTQ+ individuals in sports in Germany

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Experiences of LGBTQ+ individuals in sports in Germany. / Hartmann-Tews, Ilse; Menzel, Tobias; Braumüller, Birgit.

in: German Journal of Exercise and Sport Research, 07.10.2021.

Publikationen: Beitrag in FachzeitschriftZeitschriftenaufsätzeForschungBegutachtung

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@article{8e558adbcf2f4aa38a19c102e71c4f31,
title = "Experiences of LGBTQ+ individuals in sports in Germany",
abstract = "There is growing international evidence that lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer, and sexually/gender diverse (LGBTQ+) people regularly experience discrimination in sports. However, there is a lack of empirical research with regard to the sports situation in Germany. Based on a quantitative survey of 858 self-identifying LGBTQ+ individuals, the present research is the first to provide a comprehensive picture of the experiences of LGBTQ+ people in sports in Germany. To add distinctive knowledge to the international research, this analysis considers differences within the group of LGBTQ+ people and between various sports settings (i.e., organizational framework, team vs individual sports, and performance level. Two research questions are addressed: (1) What micro- and meso-level factors affect the witnessing of homo-/transnegative language and the prevalence of homo-/transnegative incidents in respondents{\textquoteright} sports activities? (2) What micro- and meso-level factors affect respondents{\textquoteright} feelings of being offended by homo-/transnegative language and what behavioral consequences (i.e., refraining from specific sports and reactions to homo-/transnegative episodes) can be observed among different LGBTQ+ subgroups? The data reveal the impact of the sports context on the perception of homo-/transnegative language but not on negative experiences. Moreover, there is a higher prevalence of gay compared to lesbian athletes with regard to the perception of homo-/transnegative language in their sports and a higher prevalence of gay athletes and non-cisgender (transgender) athletes with regard to homo-/transnegative experiences in sport compared to lesbian and cisgender athletes. The empirical evidence confirms and deepens international findings. Moreover, the data assist the Sport Ministers Conference{\textquoteright}s goal of increasing initiatives to tackle the exclusion and discrimination faced by LGBTQ+ people in sports.",
keywords = "Discrimination, Gender identity, Homophobia, Sexual orientation, Transphobia",
author = "Ilse Hartmann-Tews and Tobias Menzel and Birgit Braum{\"u}ller",
year = "2021",
month = oct,
day = "7",
doi = "10.1007/s12662-021-00756-0",
language = "English",
journal = "German Journal of Exercise and Sport Research",
issn = "2509-3142",
publisher = "Springer Berlin",

}

RIS

TY - JOUR

T1 - Experiences of LGBTQ+ individuals in sports in Germany

AU - Hartmann-Tews, Ilse

AU - Menzel, Tobias

AU - Braumüller, Birgit

PY - 2021/10/7

Y1 - 2021/10/7

N2 - There is growing international evidence that lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer, and sexually/gender diverse (LGBTQ+) people regularly experience discrimination in sports. However, there is a lack of empirical research with regard to the sports situation in Germany. Based on a quantitative survey of 858 self-identifying LGBTQ+ individuals, the present research is the first to provide a comprehensive picture of the experiences of LGBTQ+ people in sports in Germany. To add distinctive knowledge to the international research, this analysis considers differences within the group of LGBTQ+ people and between various sports settings (i.e., organizational framework, team vs individual sports, and performance level. Two research questions are addressed: (1) What micro- and meso-level factors affect the witnessing of homo-/transnegative language and the prevalence of homo-/transnegative incidents in respondents’ sports activities? (2) What micro- and meso-level factors affect respondents’ feelings of being offended by homo-/transnegative language and what behavioral consequences (i.e., refraining from specific sports and reactions to homo-/transnegative episodes) can be observed among different LGBTQ+ subgroups? The data reveal the impact of the sports context on the perception of homo-/transnegative language but not on negative experiences. Moreover, there is a higher prevalence of gay compared to lesbian athletes with regard to the perception of homo-/transnegative language in their sports and a higher prevalence of gay athletes and non-cisgender (transgender) athletes with regard to homo-/transnegative experiences in sport compared to lesbian and cisgender athletes. The empirical evidence confirms and deepens international findings. Moreover, the data assist the Sport Ministers Conference’s goal of increasing initiatives to tackle the exclusion and discrimination faced by LGBTQ+ people in sports.

AB - There is growing international evidence that lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer, and sexually/gender diverse (LGBTQ+) people regularly experience discrimination in sports. However, there is a lack of empirical research with regard to the sports situation in Germany. Based on a quantitative survey of 858 self-identifying LGBTQ+ individuals, the present research is the first to provide a comprehensive picture of the experiences of LGBTQ+ people in sports in Germany. To add distinctive knowledge to the international research, this analysis considers differences within the group of LGBTQ+ people and between various sports settings (i.e., organizational framework, team vs individual sports, and performance level. Two research questions are addressed: (1) What micro- and meso-level factors affect the witnessing of homo-/transnegative language and the prevalence of homo-/transnegative incidents in respondents’ sports activities? (2) What micro- and meso-level factors affect respondents’ feelings of being offended by homo-/transnegative language and what behavioral consequences (i.e., refraining from specific sports and reactions to homo-/transnegative episodes) can be observed among different LGBTQ+ subgroups? The data reveal the impact of the sports context on the perception of homo-/transnegative language but not on negative experiences. Moreover, there is a higher prevalence of gay compared to lesbian athletes with regard to the perception of homo-/transnegative language in their sports and a higher prevalence of gay athletes and non-cisgender (transgender) athletes with regard to homo-/transnegative experiences in sport compared to lesbian and cisgender athletes. The empirical evidence confirms and deepens international findings. Moreover, the data assist the Sport Ministers Conference’s goal of increasing initiatives to tackle the exclusion and discrimination faced by LGBTQ+ people in sports.

KW - Discrimination

KW - Gender identity

KW - Homophobia

KW - Sexual orientation

KW - Transphobia

UR - https://www.mendeley.com/catalogue/9dde50ec-62d7-30fc-90e0-62ece2ceae0f/

U2 - 10.1007/s12662-021-00756-0

DO - 10.1007/s12662-021-00756-0

M3 - Journal articles

JO - German Journal of Exercise and Sport Research

JF - German Journal of Exercise and Sport Research

SN - 2509-3142

ER -

ID: 6210201