Techniques of tactical training and tactics of technical training

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Peak performance in sports requires fast choices often with reduced information or limited capacity to deliberate. I will present an adaptive toolbox approach that presents a list of simple strategies athletes use to make choices of different complexity. A unifying topic will be the principle of simplicity in using rules of thumb, in reducing the number of cues or information, in only considering a few options or in relying on intuition. Intuition refers to both fast choices and emotions. I will provide paradigms in which the interaction of perceptual, actional, cognitive and emotional components of choices can be understood. In more detail I will provide a model SMART.
SMART (Situation Model of Anticipated Response consequences in Time-pressure decisions; Raab, 2007) describes the interaction of top-down and bottom-up processes in skill acquisition and thus the dynamic interaction of sensory and motor capacities in embodied cognition. The empirically validated, extended, and revised SMART-ER can now predict when specific dynamic interactions of top-down and bottom-up processes have a beneficial or diametrical effect on performance and learning depending on situational constraints. The model itself matches empirical evidence and proposes learning strategies for when situation complexity varies or time pressure is present. Experiments from expertise research in sports illustrate that neither bottom-up nor top-down processes are bad or good per se but their effects depend on personal and situational characteristics.
Consider the soccer goalkeeper’s simple task of preventing a penalty shooter from shooting a goal. The goalkeeper’s behavior provides a perfect example of sensorimotor interaction, that is, the interaction of sensory and motor capacities. Given the distance of the ball to the goal (11 m or 12 yards), the mean speed of a ball of more than 20 m/s, and the required anticipation of 100 ms or more before the actual kick, the goalkeeper must quickly decide which way to go. In simple terms, the goalkeeper’s options are to move to the left, right, or middle (even if they seem to choose the middle less often). But how can one explain a specific choice—say, a move to the left—and predict when the goalkeeper will jump? The embodied cognition framework suggests that this action is based on immediate and stored sensorimotor experiences.
The model SMART-ER will be used to explain for two dimensions: learning (implicit and explicit) and transfer (domain general or domain specific) how we could derive tactics of technical training and how we can build techniques for tactical training and thus provide complex training as a solution to many sports.
From this list of theoretical arguments and experimental proofs, I will provide a holistic picture that can explain the findings and taxonomies of simple strategies. Practical considerations will be drawn for research for techniques of tactics and tactics of technical training.
OriginalspracheEnglisch
TitelVIII Congreso Internacional de la Asociación Española de Ciencias del Deporte : Libro de actas
Redakteure/-innenFernando del Villar Álvarez
Seitenumfang2
Herausgeber/inAsociación Española de Ciencias del Deporte
Erscheinungsdatum13.11.2014
Seiten26-27
ISBN (Print)84-697-1248-9
PublikationsstatusVeröffentlicht - 13.11.2014
VeranstaltungCongreso Internacional de la Asociación Española de Ciencias del Deporte - Caceres, Spanien
Dauer: 13.11.201415.11.2014
Konferenznummer: VIII

ID: 729674

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