Development of liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry-based analytical assays for the determination of HIF stabilizers in preventive doping research

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Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) stabilizers increase blood haemoglobin levels after oral administration and their use in sports was recently banned by the World Anti-Doping Agency. For the support of analytical assay development, the metabolic fate of two model HIF stabilizers, based on the isoquinoline-3-carboxamide scaffold of the lead drug candidate FG-2216, was assessed by in vitro methods. The analytes were identified and characterized by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) in positive and negative ionization mode using an API 4000 Qtrap as well as an exactive high resolution-high accuracy MS. The model HIF stabilizer N-[(1-chloro-4-hydroxy-7-isopropoxy-isoquinolin-3-carbonyl)-amino]-acetic acid (1), was converted into 3 major phase I metabolites by hydroxylation, dealkylation, and dehydrogenation. The structures of the hydroxylated and the dealkylated metabolites were confirmed by LC-coupled nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Moreover, glucuronic acid conjugates of the active drug and one of the dealkylated phase I metabolite were identified. Hydroxylation of model compound 2 (N-[(1-chloro-4-hydroxy-isoquinolin-3-carbonyl)-amino]-acetic acid) yielded two metabolites, regioisomeric to the dealkylated product of 1. Mass spectral data of compounds 1 and 2, as well as a structure-related analogue were included into a multi-target analytical assay based on direct injection and LC-MS/MS analysis of human urine. The method was validated for quantitative purposes. In an approach of preventive doping research, more comprehensive screening methods applying precursor ion (m/z 166) and neutral loss (-10 Da) scans were developed, allowing for the detection of unknown metabolites and structurally analogous HIF stabilizers emerging from ongoing lead structure developments.

Original languageEnglish
JournalDrug testing and analysis
Issue number11-12
Pages (from-to)756-770
Number of pages15
Publication statusPublished - 2012

ID: 129954


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