Die Verfügbarkeit von Dopingmitteln in der Schweiz

Research output: Book/ReportDissertations

Authors

Research units

Details

It is illegal to import doping substances into Switzerland. In October 2012, provisions were introduced into the Swiss Law “Encouraging Sports and Physical Activity” allowing the Swiss customs authorities to seize certain suspicious products containing doping substances at the border and to pass them on to the Swiss Anti-Doping Agency, who examine them and may take further action. In recent years, thousands of illegal doping substances have been confiscated. The work presented here takes a closer look at the black market products seized in the years 2013 and 2014.
Firstly, a descriptive analysis of the available data (product names, labelled ingredients, destinations and despatcher, manufacturer, etc.) was carried out. On the basis of these findings, a questionnaire was compiled and sent to the addressees in order to find out why the doping substances were imported into Switzerland and to establish the socio-demographic characteristics of the purchasers. Finally, this PhD study also looked at the contents of the seized products. A qualitative and semi-quantitative chemical analysis was conducted on more than a thousand black market products. Due to the products’ various galenic formulations and ingredients, adapted extraction and dilution techniques and a range of analytical methods were necessary to identify and quantify the ingredients, e.g. mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS, LC-HRMS) for anabolic substances and gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) to identify and quantify peptide hormones.
The descriptive analysis showed that the products entered Switzerland principally via south-east European countries. About three quarters of all seized products were labelled as anabolic substances, mainly ordered by men. Products sent to women were found to more frequently contain peptide hormones. The evaluation of the questionnaire showed similar results. More specifically, male importers primarily ordered anabolic substances in order to build up muscle, and women bought peptide hormones and supplements to reduce body weight. The doping substances were thus imported primarily for aesthetic purposes rather than to increase athletic performance. The chemical analysis of the seized products showed that the majority of the examined products (more than 80 %) were of poor pharmaceutical quality, posing a potential health risk to the user.
This study provides unique data on seized black market products. The analytical results combined with the non-analytical findings presented in this research, provide fundamental data to understand the current availability of black market products in Switzerland. On the basis of the data provided and conclusions discussed in this thesis, the future availability of such products ought to be more effectively restricted.
Original languageGerman
Place of PublicationKöln
PublisherDeutsche Sporthochschule Köln
Number of pages89
Publication statusPublished - 2017

ID: 3079477

View graph of relations