Dietary interventions to improve body composition in men treated with androgen deprivation therapy for prostate cancer: a solution for the growing problem?

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BACKGROUND: Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) has adverse effects on body composition, including muscle wasting and body fat accumulation, which may be attenuated by nutrition therapy. This systematic review summarises available evidence on the effects of dietary interventions on lean mass, fat mass and body mass index (BMI) in men treated with ADT for prostate cancer.

METHODS: MEDLINE, Embase, Web of Science and were searched from inception through December 2020. We included all controlled trials evaluating effects of supplementation or dietary interventions on body composition in men with prostate cancer receiving continuous ADT. Methodological quality of the studies was assessed using the Cochrane Collaboration's risk of bias tool. Meta-analysis was performed using a random effects model to calculate standardised mean differences between intervention and comparator groups. (PROSPERO; CRD42020185777).

RESULTS: Eleven studies (n = 536 participants) were included. Seven studies investigated the effects of dietary advice interventions, e.g. individual or group counselling, and four studies included a nutritional supplement. Eight studies combined the dietary intervention with exercise. Nine studies reported sufficient data for inclusion in the meta-analysis. Dietary advice and supplementation interventions combined were not associated with significant changes in lean mass (0.05 kg; 95% CI: -0.17, 0.26; p = 0.674; n = 355), fat mass (-0.22 kg; 95% CI: -0.45, 0.01; p = 0.064; n = 336) or BMI (-0.16 kg*m-2; 95% CI: -0.37, 0.04; p = 0.121; n = 399). Dietary advice interventions alone were associated with a significant fat mass reduction (-0.29 kg; 95% CI: -0.54, -0.03; p = 0.028; n = 266).

CONCLUSIONS: Most studies were dietary advice interventions targeting caloric restriction, which showed the potential to reduce fat mass but did not increase lean mass in men treated with ADT. Future interventions should investigate whether a combination of dietary advice and protein supplementation with concomitant resistance exercise could counteract ADT-induced muscle wasting.

Original languageEnglish
JournalProstate cancer and prostatic diseases
Pages (from-to)1-10
Number of pages10
Publication statusElectronically/ online published ahead of print - 30.06.2021

ID: 6284319

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