Effects of low-pass filter combinations on lower extremity joint moments in distance running

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Inverse dynamics is a standard tool in biomechanics, which requires low-pass filtering of external force and kinematic signals. Unmatched filtering procedures are reported to affect joint moment amplitudes in high impact movements, like landing or cutting, but are also common in the analysis of distance running. We analyzed the effects of cut-off frequencies in 94 rearfoot runners at a speed of 3.5 m/s. Additionally, we investigated whether the evaluation of footwear interventions is affected by the choice of cut-off frequencies. We performed 3D inverse dynamics for the hip, knee and ankle joints using different low-pass filter cut-off frequency combinations for a recursive fourth-order Butterworth filter. We observed fluctuations of joint moment curves in the first half of stance, which were most pronounced for the most unmatched cut-off frequency combination (kinematics: 10 Hz; ground reaction forces (GRFs): 100 Hz) and for more proximal joints. Peak sagittal plane hip joint moments were altered by 94% on average. We observed a change in the ranking of subjects based on joint moment amplitude. We found significant (p < 0.001) footwear by cut-off frequency combination interaction effects for most peak joint moments. These findings highlight the importance of cut-off frequency choice in the analysis of joint moments and the assessment of footwear interventions in distance running. Based on our results, we propose to use matched cut-off frequencies around 20 Hz in order to avoid large artificial fluctuations in joint moment curves while at the same time avoiding a severe removal of physiological high-frequency signal content from the GRF signals.

Original languageEnglish
Article number109311
JournalJournal of biomechanics
Publication statusPublished - 11.10.2019

ID: 5046788

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