Einfluss kognitiver Fähigkeiten auf Lernphasen und Lernprozesse der visuomotorischen Adaptation

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Visuomotor adaptation is an important process for the successful interaction of human motor behaviour and changing environmental cues. Besides the well-known interaction of sensory and motor processes, first studies showed an interaction of cognitive abilities and the adaptational success. In the present work we aimed to analyse the impact of cognitive functions on visuomotor adaptation and aimed to identify learning stages in relation to cognitive abilities. Therefore a learning model suggesting three stages of learning, each associated to certain cognitive abilities, was taken into account (Chein & Schneider, 2012). In the current studies, this model was tested by correlating the cognitive abilities to the adaptational success at different time points during a visuomotor adaptation task. To analyse the effects of cognitive functions on strategic components of adaptation a special focus was set on the aftereffects of adaptation. Furthermore, the influence of exposition time on explicit learning processes was analysed. As there is a well-known age-related decline of visuomotor adaptation and cognitive functions in elderly, it was analysed whether degraded cognitive functions are responsible for the decline of visuomotor adaptation. A strong interaction of cognitive abilities and learning stages of visuomotor adaptation was found in the present studies. Different cognitive functions influence the adaptational success at different time points of the adaptation process (Article I, III). The supportive effects of cognitive functions are limited to strategic components of adaptation (Article I, II, III). Elevated exposition time did not enhance the application of strategies (Article IV). Reduced cognitive abilities can explain the decline of explicit learning processes and therefore explain the decline of visuomotor adaptation in elderly (Article II, III). However, only a partial application of the Chein and Schneider learning model can be supported by the current results. There is no evidence for the first suggested learning stage (Article I, II, III). Nonetheless the second and third stage of learning can be applied to visuomotor adaptation (Article I, III). The application of the Chein and Schneider learning stages, found in younger adults, on the adaptation of elderly is further limited (Article III). Elderly remained in the second learning phase during the whole course of adaptation. Due to the reduced cognitive abilities, elderly might not be able to transit into the third, automatic execution stage. The varying impact of different cognitive functions at certain time points of adaptation, indicates learning stages of the explicit learning processes of visuomotor adaptation. The magnitude of the cognitive functions further determines the impact on the adaptational success and explains age-related declines of visuomotor adaptation.  
Original languageGerman
Place of PublicationKöln
PublisherDeutsche Sporthochschule Köln
Number of pages116
Publication statusPublished - 14.12.2016

ID: 2893247

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