Gesundheitscoaching als Maßnahme zur Lebensstiländerung: Anforderungen, Nutzung, Akzeptanz und Langzeitaktivität

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Health coaching is a promising approach to sustain a health-oriented lifestyle modification and thus to avoid chronic non-communicable diseases. It is a growing field, which is characterised by heterogeneity, especially with regard to the coach‘s qualifications, the working methods and the thematic topics. The present work deals with the question of the challenges and potentials of health coaching as an approach to change a lifestyle - in particular in terms of requirements for a health coach, the use and acceptance of different approaches and the long-term effectiveness of health coaching interventions.
An exploratory qualitative study with various stakeholders was conducted with the objective to analyse the demands on a health coach in a preventive setting. The results showed that the health coach should have soft skills in order to be able to motivate the clients to change their lifestyle sustainably. Moreover, the coach should be able to use different approaches as well as to cover a variety of topics. In addition to the personal and flexible work with the client, it is important that the coach functions as an intermediary between client and stakeholders. Therapeutic training was favoured when it comes to relevant qualifications of a coach.
The use and acceptance of a multicomponent intervention to promote physical activity was formatively analysed. With regard to the implementation of health coaching the analysis showed that telephone and web-based coaching was used little to moderate and was not rated as helpful for planning physical activity, although it was generally rated as good. However, the acceptance of face-to-face coaching was high.
In addition, a systematic review was conducted to assess the long-term effectiveness of health coaching interventions in the rehabilitative as well as in the preventive setting. The review showed that, although the number of studies continues to increase, there is a research gap of randomised controlled trials regarding the long- term effectiveness of health coaching interventions. In general, there were more interventions in the rehabilitative setting, but the preventive mostly workplace-related setting is gaining importance. No effective components could be identified due to the heterogeneity of the studies.

Particularly, the requirements for a health coach can be used for the development of training curricula and certification standards. Among the different approaches, in particular face-to-face contact is of central importance and should at least be used as an additive. From a scientific point of view, there is a need for high-quality methodological studies that on the one hand also analyse the sustainability of the interventions and on the other hand integrate health economic evaluations. The coaching process should be formatively analysed in order to identify starting points for improvements. Furthermore, qualitative studies with potential clients who give their opinion on the requirements of an intervention are useful in order to increase the participatory orientation. An extension of the studies to underrepresented target groups and topics as well as settings, such as the preventive setting, is desirable.
Original languageGerman
Place of PublicationKöln
PublisherDeutsche Sporthochschule Köln
Number of pages46
Publication statusPublished - 2020

ID: 5517244

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