Handstandvermittlung im Turnen: Praktische Auswirkungen forschungsgeleiteter Lehrkonzepte auf das Bewegungslernen von Novizen und Nachwuchsathleten

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The education sector and competitive sport have in common that ever accelerating progress within short periods of time are demanded of the involved actors. Furthermore, fundamental basics represent a prerequisite for sustainable success. With this, gymnastics education at schools and universities as well as training in competitive gymnastics are characterised by these properties. Regardless of the intention of sports activities within the framework of these two settings, the teaching and the acquisition of the handstand on the floor is a fundamental in gymnastics. Considering increasing world-class standards in competitive gymnastics as well as comprehensive curricula at educational institutions, efficient teaching methods and concepts are required to gain learning progress within short periods of time. Besides developing sufficient motor imagery, handstand acquisition calls for working on an aligned rigid body configuration as well as maintenance of balance control. Aiming for optimised educational concepts on handstand acquisition, two aspects are suggested as being essential, 1: Well-accepted knowledge regarding biomechanical characteristics and postural control mechanisms of handstand performances (The “Know-that” of handstand education), 2: Well-accepted knowledge regarding the efficacy of external information (verbal, visual and/or tactile instructions and feedback strategies) for motor learning processes (The “Know-how” of handstand education). Thus, the three studies included in the present cumulative doctoral thesis address the following leading research question: What practical implications do altered educational concepts, based on biomechanical and psychological knowledge regarding the characteristics and teaching of an gymnastics skill, have on movement learning of the handstand on the floor in novices and young athletes?
Results in study I show positive effects of a visual-comparative feedback in terms of enhanced motor imagery in sport students regarding shoulder angle positioning during handstand. Furthermore, standardised tactile-verbal instructions aiming for a stabilised body line revealed enhanced shoulder angle adjustments during the practical execution of the handstand skill. Addressing the “Know-how” of handstand education, these results support the relevance of different feedback strategies for different matters of motor learning in handstand acquisition. Considering the joint-specific efficacy of explored feedback strategies in study I, the following studies II and III primarily addressed the “Know-that” of handstand education. In view of the prominent importance of wrist work (i.e., wrist strategy) for maintaining balance control in handstands, study II revealed that an exclusive postural training addressing an aligned body configuration (as it is preferred in gymnastics training) seems to be insufficient to obtain short-term increased maintenance in young athletes’ handstand performances. As a consequence of these findings in study II, study III explored the impact of explicit wrist strategy coaching on handstand performances in novices at different skill levels. For less skilled novices, the results indicate that explicit coaching of wrist usage during handstand induced increased balance times as well as enhanced postural linearity in handstands. However, handstand performances of more experienced novices with implicit knowledge regarding handstand balances remained unaffected.
To summarise, the present findings of this cumulative doctoral thesis confirm the significance of manifold external information in the form of feedback and instruction to facilitate motor learning processes in handstand acquisition. Furthermore, present findings suggest handstand teaching to focus on postural control mechanisms of handstand balances (i.e., wrist control) in order to benefit handstand performances in unexperienced learners. With respect to the targeted interventions, the short periods of time initiating enhanced handstand performances were remarkable. However, pursuing applied research is necessary to integrate the findings of the present cumulative doctoral thesis into long-lasting optimisation of practical and comprehensive handstand education.
Original languageGerman
Place of PublicationKöln
PublisherDeutsche Sporthochschule Köln
Number of pages53
Publication statusPublished - 2019

ID: 4514127


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