How effective was the institutionalization of anti-doping? Comparing stakeholder reactions after doping exposures in the former GDR and modern Russia

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Already in 1999, the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) was established with the objective of efficiently fighting doping in elite sport. WADA was founded as a reaction to several preceding doping scandals, including the exposure of state-sponsored doping in the former German Democratic Republic (GDR). However, doping still threatens the existence of the professional sporting industry today. In 2014, an extensive doping system in Russian sport was exposed. Several investigations confirmed manipulative behavior even within the highest sporting and public governing levels. Against this background, this paper is concerned with the question in how far the addressed institutionalization of anti-doping has failed. In order to find profound answers regarding this issue, this paper uses a figurational approach following the theories of Norbert Elias. On this basis, reactions of interdependent stakeholders following the doping exposures in Russia and the former GDR are compared. Game models were used to illustrate these reactions and to draw conclusions with respect to power ratios between stakeholders. It results that the power position of the WADA is too weak and the influences of other stakeholders are still too substantial to enable an efficient anti-doping system. Instead of simply questioning the process of anti-doping institutionalization, this paper recommends to further strengthen the power position of the WADA. Based on its figurational approach, this paper recommends an entirely independent organization with extensive powers aimed at fighting doping to govern an effective anti-doping system. In addition, several specific improvements are discussed. They comprise of a new financing structure for the WADA, rewards and security for whistleblowers and enlarged possibilities for the WADA to sanction other stakeholders.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationMateriales para la Historia del Deporte: Suplemento Especial III : V Congreso Internacional "Deporte, Dopaje y Sociedad"
Number of pages1
PublisherAsociación Andaluza de Historia del Deporte
Publication date2017
Publication statusPublished - 2017
EventInternational Congress “Sport, Doping and Society” - Madrid, Spain
Duration: 15.02.201717.02.2017
Conference number: V

ID: 2918672

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