Safety, hemodynamic effects and detection of acute xenon inhalation: Rationale for banning xenon from sport

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articlesResearchpeer-review

Authors

  • Justin Stevan Lawley
  • Hannes Gatterer
  • Katrin A Dias
  • Erin J Howden
  • Satyam Sarma
  • William K Cornwell
  • Christopher M Hearon
  • Mitchel Samels
  • Braden Everding
  • Max Hendrix
  • Thomas Piper
  • Mario Thevis
  • Benjamin D Levine

Research units

Details

This study aimed to quantify the sedative effects, detection rates, and cardiovascular responses to xenon. On 3 occasions, participants breathed xenon (FiXe 30% for 20 min; FiXe 50% for 5 min; FiXe 70% for 2 min) in a nonblinded design. Sedation was monitored by a board-certified anesthesiologist. During 70% xenon, participants were also verbally instructed to operate a manual value with time-to-task failure being recorded. Beat-by-beat hemodynamics were measured continuously by ECG, photoplethysmography, and transcranial Doppler. Over 48 h postadministration, xenon was measured in blood and urine by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Xenon caused variable levels of sedation and restlessness. Task failure of the selfoperating value occurred at 60-90 s in most individuals. Over the first minute, 50% and 70% xenon caused a substantial reduction in total peripheral resistance (P <0.05). All dosages caused an increase in cardiac output (P <0.05). By the end of xenon inhalation, slight hypertension was observed after all three doses (P <0.05), with an increase in middle cerebral artery velocity (P <0.05). Xenon was consistently detected, albeit in trace amounts, up to 3 h after all three doses of xenon inhalation in blood and urine with variable results thereafter. Xenon inhalation caused sedation incompatible with selfoperation of a breathing apparatus, thus causing a potential lifethreatening condition in the absence of an anesthesiologist. Yet, xenon can only be reliably detected in blood and urine up to 3 h postacute dosing. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Breathing xenon in dosages conceivable for doping purposes (FiXe 30% for 20 min; FiXe 50% for 5 min; FiXe 70% for 2 min) causes an initial rapid fall in total peripheral resistance with tachycardia and thereafter a mild hypertension with elevated middle cerebral artery velocity. These dose duration intervals cause sedation that is incompatible with operating a breathing apparatus and can only be detected in blood and urine samples with a high probability for up to ~3 h.
Original languageEnglish
JournalJournal of applied physiology (Bethesda, Md. : 1985)
Volume127
Issue number6
Pages (from-to)1511-1518
Number of pages8
ISSN8750-7587
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 01.12.2019

ID: 4609584

View graph of relations