Safety, hemodynamic effects and detection of acute xenon inhalation: Rationale for banning xenon from sport

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Safety, hemodynamic effects and detection of acute xenon inhalation : Rationale for banning xenon from sport. / Lawley, Justin Stevan; Gatterer, Hannes; Dias, Katrin A; Howden, Erin J; Sarma, Satyam; Cornwell, William K; Hearon, Christopher M; Samels, Mitchel; Everding, Braden; Hendrix, Max; Piper, Thomas; Thevis, Mario; Levine, Benjamin D.

In: Journal of applied physiology (Bethesda, Md. : 1985), 15.08.2019.

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@article{54caac61a0e74f2fb27ab60a33c0b743,
title = "Safety, hemodynamic effects and detection of acute xenon inhalation: Rationale for banning xenon from sport",
abstract = "OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to quantify the sedative effects, detection rates and cardiovascular responses to xenon.METHODS: On three occasions, participants breathed xenon (FiXe 30{\%}, for 20 min; FiXe 50{\%} for 5 min; FiXe 70{\%} for 2 min) in a non-blinded design. Sedation was monitored by a board certified anesthesiologist. During 70{\%} xenon, participants were also verbally instructed to operate a manual value with time to task failure being recorded. Beat-by-beat hemodynamics were measured continuously by ECG, photoplethysmography and transcranial Doppler. Over 48 hours post administration, xenon was measured in blood and urine by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.RESULTS: Xenon caused variable levels of sedation and restlessness. Task failure of the self-operating value occurred at 60 - 90 seconds in most individuals. Over the first minute, 50 and 70{\%} xenon caused a substantial reduction in total peripheral resistance (P<0.05). All dosages caused an increase in cardiac output (P<0.05). By the end of xenon inhalation, slight hypertension was observed after all three doses (P<0.05) with an increase in middle cerebral artery velocity (P<0.05). Xenon was consistently detected, albeit in trace amounts, up to 3 hours post all three doses of xenon inhalation in blood and urine with variable results thereafter.DISCUSSION: Xenon inhalation caused sedation incompatible with self-operation of a breathing apparatus, thus causing a potential life threatening condition in the absence of an anesthesiologist. Yet, xenon can only be reliably detected in blood and urine up to 3 hours post acute dosing.",
author = "Lawley, {Justin Stevan} and Hannes Gatterer and Dias, {Katrin A} and Howden, {Erin J} and Satyam Sarma and Cornwell, {William K} and Hearon, {Christopher M} and Mitchel Samels and Braden Everding and Max Hendrix and Thomas Piper and Mario Thevis and Levine, {Benjamin D}",
note = "Online: 15.08.2019",
year = "2019",
month = "8",
day = "15",
doi = "10.1152/japplphysiol.00290.2019",
language = "English",
journal = "Journal of applied physiology (Bethesda, Md. : 1985)",
issn = "8750-7587",
publisher = "American Physiological Society",

}

RIS

TY - JOUR

T1 - Safety, hemodynamic effects and detection of acute xenon inhalation

T2 - Rationale for banning xenon from sport

AU - Lawley, Justin Stevan

AU - Gatterer, Hannes

AU - Dias, Katrin A

AU - Howden, Erin J

AU - Sarma, Satyam

AU - Cornwell, William K

AU - Hearon, Christopher M

AU - Samels, Mitchel

AU - Everding, Braden

AU - Hendrix, Max

AU - Piper, Thomas

AU - Thevis, Mario

AU - Levine, Benjamin D

N1 - Online: 15.08.2019

PY - 2019/8/15

Y1 - 2019/8/15

N2 - OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to quantify the sedative effects, detection rates and cardiovascular responses to xenon.METHODS: On three occasions, participants breathed xenon (FiXe 30%, for 20 min; FiXe 50% for 5 min; FiXe 70% for 2 min) in a non-blinded design. Sedation was monitored by a board certified anesthesiologist. During 70% xenon, participants were also verbally instructed to operate a manual value with time to task failure being recorded. Beat-by-beat hemodynamics were measured continuously by ECG, photoplethysmography and transcranial Doppler. Over 48 hours post administration, xenon was measured in blood and urine by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.RESULTS: Xenon caused variable levels of sedation and restlessness. Task failure of the self-operating value occurred at 60 - 90 seconds in most individuals. Over the first minute, 50 and 70% xenon caused a substantial reduction in total peripheral resistance (P<0.05). All dosages caused an increase in cardiac output (P<0.05). By the end of xenon inhalation, slight hypertension was observed after all three doses (P<0.05) with an increase in middle cerebral artery velocity (P<0.05). Xenon was consistently detected, albeit in trace amounts, up to 3 hours post all three doses of xenon inhalation in blood and urine with variable results thereafter.DISCUSSION: Xenon inhalation caused sedation incompatible with self-operation of a breathing apparatus, thus causing a potential life threatening condition in the absence of an anesthesiologist. Yet, xenon can only be reliably detected in blood and urine up to 3 hours post acute dosing.

AB - OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to quantify the sedative effects, detection rates and cardiovascular responses to xenon.METHODS: On three occasions, participants breathed xenon (FiXe 30%, for 20 min; FiXe 50% for 5 min; FiXe 70% for 2 min) in a non-blinded design. Sedation was monitored by a board certified anesthesiologist. During 70% xenon, participants were also verbally instructed to operate a manual value with time to task failure being recorded. Beat-by-beat hemodynamics were measured continuously by ECG, photoplethysmography and transcranial Doppler. Over 48 hours post administration, xenon was measured in blood and urine by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.RESULTS: Xenon caused variable levels of sedation and restlessness. Task failure of the self-operating value occurred at 60 - 90 seconds in most individuals. Over the first minute, 50 and 70% xenon caused a substantial reduction in total peripheral resistance (P<0.05). All dosages caused an increase in cardiac output (P<0.05). By the end of xenon inhalation, slight hypertension was observed after all three doses (P<0.05) with an increase in middle cerebral artery velocity (P<0.05). Xenon was consistently detected, albeit in trace amounts, up to 3 hours post all three doses of xenon inhalation in blood and urine with variable results thereafter.DISCUSSION: Xenon inhalation caused sedation incompatible with self-operation of a breathing apparatus, thus causing a potential life threatening condition in the absence of an anesthesiologist. Yet, xenon can only be reliably detected in blood and urine up to 3 hours post acute dosing.

U2 - 10.1152/japplphysiol.00290.2019

DO - 10.1152/japplphysiol.00290.2019

M3 - Journal articles

C2 - 31414955

JO - Journal of applied physiology (Bethesda, Md. : 1985)

JF - Journal of applied physiology (Bethesda, Md. : 1985)

SN - 8750-7587

ER -

ID: 4609584