Zusammenhang zwischen dem mütterlichen Lebensstil, ausgewählten Gesundheits- und Laborparametern sowie dem Einfluss auf die frühkindliche Entwicklung: die "MAMA"-Studie

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Introduction: The prevalence of overweight and obesity increases during pregnancy and is associated with adverse effects on mother and child. There is a significant increase in overweight and obesity among women of childbearing age in Germany. Currently research is focussing on possible mechanisms due to “prenatal programming”. According to the theory of “fetal programming” advancing civilization diseases underlie the programming in the womb. Perinatal influences such as maternal lifestyle and intrauterine environmental factors appear to have a lasting effect and have an influence on the lifetime risk of developing obesity or cardiovascular disease of offspring. The results of this study provide information about possible effects of regular physical activity in pregnancy on mother’s and newborn’s health. Methods: Forty-two pregnant participants were quasi experimental divided into an intervention and a control group (IG: n=21; KG: n=16; drop-outs: n=5). Data collection of the subjects (anthropometry, anamnesis, blood samples) coincided with the study conduct at T0 (13 to 16 weeks), T1 (around the 24th week of gestation) and T2 (36±1 week of gestation). After childbirth among other information the birth weight and data of checkups U2-U6 were queried. The intervention was a combination of exercise training (32 sessions of 60 minutes) as well as nutrition education and counseling for pregnant women (6 units per 60 minutes). Exercise training lasted over a period of sixteen weeks and consisted of strength training and aerobic exercises. Control participants underwent normal antenatal care and received usual nutrition and activity guidelines from their gynecologists, but received no additional sport or nutrition offers. Abstract Results: The participants were 31.5±4.1 years old, 168.0±5.1 cm tall, weighed 64.4±9.4 kg, and the BMI was 22.7±3.0 kg/m2. A significant difference was shown between intervention and control group in terms of body fat percentage. The intervention group reduced their body fat not only in the skin fold thickness measurement (-6.0±4.3 %) but also in the calculation of fat mass in the upper arm (-5.3±3.5 cm2). The control group, however, increased their body fat during pregnancy (3.3±2.9 %; fat mass in the upper arm 2.8±5.9 cm2). The intervention group also showed a significant higher activity by means of Pedometer than the control group (p=0.001). Furthermore at all three time points the leptin levels in the intervention group were lower than in the control group. At T0 (p=0.005) and T2 (p=0.030) the leptin levels were significantly different. Similar results were shown in the BDNF levels. At T1 (p<0.001) and T2 (p<0.001) they differed significantly. In the present study, no effects of a lifestyle intervention during pregnancy on early childhood parameters (up to the date of the U6-examination) could be detected. Maternal preconception BMI seems to have the most influence on birth weight of the child (p<0.001). Discussion: The results of the present study show that physical activity during pregnancy can have positive effects on the mother. Maternal obesity seems to be the strongest predictor of childhood obesity, therefore the focus has to be on primary preventive interventions. The aim should be to carry out adequate and effective lifestyle changes as soon as possible. The pre-pregnant maternal lifestyle, the prenatal maternal lifestyle at the latest, and especially physical activity play key roles in the prevention of pregnant specific complications and consecutive co-morbidities (such as overweight and obesity). Since overweight and obesity, but also an increased weight gain, have an increased risk of maternal and neonatal complications, they should be reduced or kept low in terms of a successful prevention strategy.
Original languageGerman
Place of PublicationKöln
PublisherDeutsche Sporthochschule Köln
Number of pages259
Publication statusPublished - 2017

ID: 3169768

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